Complete the passage with the correct paragraphs. There is one more paragraph than you need.
COMPUTERS: FROM HACKING TO CRIME
Known by the name of Bug Hunter, the hacker said he broke into the files for the pleasure of seeing the welcome, "Good afternoon, HRH Duke of Edinburgh."
He typed 1234, which turned out to be a testing file with access to all the Prestel code numbers.
Hacking started as an intellectual game among fanatical American computer enthusiasts. They enjoyed cracking the private codes of large business computers and creating more or less harmless chaos in their files. But now the practice has spread to computer fraud, and to the reading of confidential information.
Once a hacker has a genuine user s network identity, he can run up bills for electronic mail and telexes, and read all the user s private mail. It is almost impossible to detect the unauthorised use of the service.
Much more serious than amateur hacking is the professional computer fraud. Millions of pounds have been stolen from financial institutions through computer fraud, usually by the illegal transfer of funds to foreign bank accounts.
Only a fraction of such crimes are reported because companies fear the publicity would damage customer confidence. And the publicity would be harmful.
Each computer terminal is the equivalent of a cheque book. Instead of signing the cheque, with a terminal you authorise it, and the money goes.
Cases of large-scale mischief caused by hackers are rare. In one case, a hacker succeeded in entering a word processor used by the Israeli Foreign Minister, and added humorous sentences to a speech prepared for him. The changes were spotted as he was about to deliver the speech. In another case, a credit agency with confidential details on 90 million people discovered that hackers had broken its security codes, and had been exchanging the passwords on electronic bulletin boards.
Computers have become commonplace. Soon, every home will have one. They will be easy to use and allow people to shop and study and work at home. We live in revolutionary times but this is a bloodless revolution.
An accountant explains: "Computer technology makes large scale financial dealing possible. It is all tied in with buying, selling, making deals and transferring the money. But security systems have not kept up with the computing systems. Everywhere, there is the opportunity, if somebody has the urge, to misuse the system. The crimes are discovered, but the problem is that they are not discovered quickly enough. Even if it is detected within a few hours, it is too late. The person who has committed the crime has already left the building and caught a plane."
The hacker made his way into British Telecom's huge Prestel system by using a home computer. He typed out an experimental line of numbers, all twos, when the computer asked for a 10-digit identity code. It worked, and the computer asked for a four-digit password.
Bug Hunter was eventually tracked down and arrested. He was very bitter about being treated as a criminal. He said: "They should be employing people like me to plug gaps in the system. I'm disgusted." He was fined £600. A spokesman said: "Security has been tightened considerably."
There are a number of cases where more than a million has been stolen. These crimes are easy to carry out because large companies and financial institutions are connected to the network used by the clearing banks for transfer funds around the world.
All a hacker needs is a cheap home computer, a modem to link it to the telephone network, and a basic knowledge of how computers talk to each other. The hacker then telephones mainframe computer services, such as electronic mail networks, and attempts to break the security code. Callers have three chances to type in the correct code before the call is cut off. By typing in a series of educated guesses time after time, hackers can find their way into a system. They may be helped by people choosing obvious code-words, such as first names or addresses.